In this context of changing and challenging market requirements, Gas Insulated Substation GIS has found a broad range of applications in power systems for more than two decades because of its high reliability, easy maintenance and small ground space requirement etc. SF6 has been of considerable technological interest as an insulation medium in GIS because of its superior insulating properties, high dielectric strength at relatively low pressure and its thermal and chemical stability. SF6 is generally found to be very sensitive to field perturbations such as those caused by conductor surface imperfections and by conducting particle contaminants. The presence of contamination can therefore be a problem with gas insulated substations operating at high fields. If the effects of these particles could be eliminated, then this would improve the reliability of compressed gas insulated substation. It would also offer the possibility of operating at higher fields to affect a potential reduction in the GIS size with subsequent savings in the cost of manufacture and installation. The purpose of this paper is to develop techniques, which will formulate the basic equations that will govern the movement of metallic particles like aluminum, copper in a coated as well as uncoated busduct. In recent years, the areas of industrial application of AC drives, especially Induction machine based on DTC technique has gradually increased due to its advantages over the other techniques of control. However conventional DTC suffers from high torque ripple and variable switching frequency. This paper, propose a method to reduce torque fluctuations, where the circular flux vector is divided into twelve sectors and is compared with conventional DTC method where the flux vector is divided into six.
TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY 1
Life And Time One of the first ways in which we learn to classify objects is into two groups: In casual encounters with the material universe, we rarely feel any difficulty here, since we usually deal with things that are clearly alive, such as a dog or a rattlesnake; or with things that are clearly nonalive, such as a brick or a typewriter. Nevertheless, the task of defining “life” is both difficult and subtle; something that at once becomes evident if we stop to think.
Consider a caterpillar crawling over a rock. The caterpillar is alive, but the rock is not; as you guess at once, since the caterpillar is moving and the rock is not. Yet what if the caterpillar were crawling over the trunk of a tree?
Devil In The Dark () The Horta was an example of Silicon life.; Now we are really sailing off into terra incognito. “Here be dragons” and all that. But if you have starships, you almost have to have aliens (Isaac Asimov’s Foundation trilogy being the most notable exception).The “science” is called Astrobiology, the famous “science in search of a subject”.
Archeological research, as generally practiced, shares with the rest of anthropology and the other social sciences a concern for the recurrent, patterned aspects of human behavior rather than with the isolation of the unique. It is historical in the sense that it deals with human behavior viewed through time and supplements written sources with the documentation provided by artifactual evidence from the past. During the century or so of its existence as a recognizable scholarly discipline, archeology has come more and more to apply scientific procedures to the collection and analysis of its data, even when its subject matter could be considered humanistic as well as scientific.
Archeology can also be properly regarded as a set of specialized techniques for obtaining cultural data from the past, data that may be used by anthropologists, historians, art critics, economists, or any others interested in man and his activities. This view has the advantage of eliminating the argument whether archeology is anthropology or history and allows for recognition of the varied, sometimes incompatible, purposes for which archeological data and conclusions are used.
There is no reason to regard the archeology of Beazley, who analyzes Greek black-figure vases, as identical with the archeology of MacNeish, who has excavated plant remains of the earliest Mexican farmers. No other reliable means is available to extend backward our knowledge of culture, since traditional histories, orally transmitted, are not only shallow in their time depth but subject to many distortions with the passage of time.
It has provided an essential check on theories of cultural evolution and is substituting fact for fancy in such matters as the origins of plant and animal domestication and the beginnings of writing, urbanization, and other crucial steps toward civilization. Although scientific archeology—in contrast to antiquarian studies and the collection of curios—is less than a century old, it has already provided a comprehensive and fairly detailed view of human activities in all parts of the world from the very beginnings of mankind Clark At the same time that archeology is fundamental to a scientific understanding of man, it is also a subject of tremendous popular interest, albeit too often of a superficial and sensational kind.
The discovery in of the tomb of Tutankhamen, its contents still largely unlooted, was front-page news around the world, as well as a significant contribution to Egyptology. The wall paintings of Lascaux Cave, as soon as they were open to the public, attracted thousands of visitors, many of whom were willing to stand in line for hours to secure even a brief view of the murals.
An archeological discovery that stirred tremendous popular interest, without any of the artistic appeal of the foregoing examples, was the excavation in Newfoundland in of the first Norse settlement in the New World to be positively identified.
The Age of the Earth
Os, and most abundant Os. Alpha decay is predicted for all seven naturally occurring isotopes, but it has been observed only for Os, presumably due to very long half-lives. It is predicted that Os and Os can undergo double beta decay but this radioactivity has not been observed yet. It has also been used to measure the intensity of continental weathering over geologic time and to fix minimum ages for stabilization of the mantle roots of continental cratons.
This decay is a reason why rhenium-rich minerals are abnormally rich in Os. They always observed a small amount of a dark, insoluble residue.
Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed. The method compares the abundance of a naturally occurring radioactive isotope within the material to the abundance of its decay products, which form at a known constant rate of decay.
If you are an ultra-rich oil baron for whom petroleum is the basis of all your wealth and power , you are going to fight the solar power industry like you were a cornered wolverine. Just try to find a CEOs of telephone-directories, newspaper, encyclopedia, and magazine publishers who has anything nice to say about the advent of the internet. All of those publishers are rapidly going bankrupt.
Such powerful people want the status quo ante , thank you very much. Not for deep-seated psychological reasons, it is just about the money. They will use every tool at their disposal. Everything from buying all the rights to the tech and supressing it, to forcing their bribed politicians to pass laws outlawing the disruptive technology. Remember all those urban legends about the guy who invented an automobile that would run on water, and how they mysteriously vanished never to be seen again?
Most likely a legend, but doesn’t it seem all too possible that a corporation would be sending a stealth team of elite assasins to kill the researchers developing the technology and burn all the research notes? On the other hand there are ‘powerful people’ wannabes who hope to seize power by exploiting a new disruptive technology. They are more or less at war with the status quo group.
Back to the Top 2. A group, or family of elements, is a vertical column of the periodic table. Elements are placed into families due to their similar properties, characteristics, and reactivities. For example, all of the elements in group 1 except for hydrogen, which has unique properties are very reactive and form compounds in the same ratios and with similar properties as other 1 elements. Due to the similarities in their chemical properties, Mendeleev put these elements into the same group and they came to be known as the alkali metals.
The alkali metals include:
Perhaps lunar miners could use something analogous to Bruce Damer’s idea for asteroids of using CO in an enclosure warmed by the sunlight and iron and nickel extracted in attached 3D printer – .
Radioactive decay[ edit ] Example of a radioactive decay chain from lead Pb to lead Pb. The final decay product, lead Pb , is stable and can no longer undergo spontaneous radioactive decay. All ordinary matter is made up of combinations of chemical elements , each with its own atomic number , indicating the number of protons in the atomic nucleus. Additionally, elements may exist in different isotopes , with each isotope of an element differing in the number of neutrons in the nucleus.
A particular isotope of a particular element is called a nuclide. Some nuclides are inherently unstable. That is, at some point in time, an atom of such a nuclide will undergo radioactive decay and spontaneously transform into a different nuclide. This transformation may be accomplished in a number of different ways, including alpha decay emission of alpha particles and beta decay electron emission, positron emission, or electron capture.
Another possibility is spontaneous fission into two or more nuclides. While the moment in time at which a particular nucleus decays is unpredictable, a collection of atoms of a radioactive nuclide decays exponentially at a rate described by a parameter known as the half-life , usually given in units of years when discussing dating techniques. After one half-life has elapsed, one half of the atoms of the nuclide in question will have decayed into a “daughter” nuclide or decay product.
In many cases, the daughter nuclide itself is radioactive, resulting in a decay chain , eventually ending with the formation of a stable nonradioactive daughter nuclide; each step in such a chain is characterized by a distinct half-life. In these cases, usually the half-life of interest in radiometric dating is the longest one in the chain, which is the rate-limiting factor in the ultimate transformation of the radioactive nuclide into its stable daughter.
A History: ’s Word of the Year
Chemically pure silica has been prepared in at least 35 crystalline forms with density varying by more than a factor of 2 17 to 43 SiO2 units per cubic Angstroms. Chemical properties such as hygroscopicity tendency to react with ambient water vary tremendously depending on the structure. Devine, Plenum NY ] I’ve seen a lot of work using the refractive index at optical frequencies to characterize silica. I’m not sure why, unless the joke about looking under the lamp post the light is better applies: Dielectric constant at DC-to-microwave frequencies, and infrared absorption are much better ways to characterize SiO2.
Fundamental particles Of Nuclear Isotopes, Isobars, Isotones and Isomers -Differences between chemical reactions and nuclear reactions: Fusion and fission – Radio active series, group displacement law – Mass defect – Applications of radio isotopes carbon dating, rock dating and medicinal applications.
Potential of abundant, environmentally harmless energy technology , which already exists My strategy for manifesting that energy event for humanity’s and the planet’s benefit. I w as born in In that same year, I had my cultural and mystical awakenings. During my second year of college, I had my first existential crisis and a paranormal event changed my studies from science to business. I s till held my energy dreams, however, and in , eight years after that first paranormal event, I had a second one that suddenly caused me to move up the coast from Los Angeles to Seattle, where I landed in the middle of what is arguably the greatest attempt yet made to bring alternative energy to the American marketplace.
That effort was killed by the local electric industry , which saw our technology as a threat to its revenues and profits, and my wild ride began. The owner of the Seattle business left the state to rebuild his effort. I followed him to Boston and soon became his partner. M y partner’s experiences in Seattle radicalized him. My use of “radical” intends to convey the original ” going to the root ” meaning.
Radicals seek a fundamental understanding of events so they aim for the root and do not hack at branches , but more economically than politically in my partner’s instance. He would never see the energy industry the same way again after his radicalization also called ” awakening ” in Seattle, but he had more radicalization ahead of him. The d ay after I arrived in Boston, we began to pursue what is today called free energy, or new energy, which is abundant and harmlessly produced energy generated with almost no operating cost.
CH150: Chapter 2 – Atoms and Periodic Table
She has been visiting scientist in the groups of Prof. Aggarwal Sheffield, and Dr. Since she has been Associate Professor at University of Salerno. In she obtained the national italian habilitation for Full Professor in organic chemistry.
Crystals and Gemstones. Crystals– In science, a crystal. is a solid substance in which the atoms, molecules, or ions are arranged in an orderly repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions.. The word crystal is a loan from the ancient Greek word (krustallos), which had the same meaning, but according to the ancient understanding of crystal.
The burial of these organisms also meant the burial of the carbon that they contained, leading to formation of our coal, oil and natural gas deposits. As the rate of C14 formation is independent from the levels of normal carbon, the drop in available C12 would not have reduced the rate of C14 production. Even if the rate of C14 formation had not increased after the Flood, there would have been a fundamental shift in the ratio towards a relatively higher radiocarbon content.
The amount of C14 present in the pre-flood environment is also limited by the relatively short time less than years which had elapsed between Creation and the Flood. Even if one is generous and allows for the current rate of C14 production to have ocurred throughout this period, the maximum amount of C14 in existence then is less than a fourth of the amount present today. The last years have seen this effect occur in reverse.
Our massive consumption of fossil fuels is releasing the carbon which has been locked up in the Earth’s crust for the last four or five millennia. The effect has been complicated by the addition of manmade radioactive carbon to the biosphere because of nuclear explosions and experimentation. And God said, Let there be a space in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.
Ch 60, approved July 17, , as amended July 26, Criteria for any given effect are expressed in terms of pollutant concentrations, duration of exposure and method of measurement. Such standards shall be consistent with the air quality criteria. Code , including asbestos mill tailings, control device asbestos waste, friable asbestos waste material, and bags or containers that previously contained commercial asbestos.
Outside storage of asbestos material is not considered a part of such facility.
Geochemical distribution of the elements. Knowledge of the geochemical distribution of elements involves elucidation of the relative and absolute abundances of the chemical elements in the Earth and in its various parts—the crust, interior, atmosphere, and hydrosphere.
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Nonradiometric dating In addition to radioactive decay , many other processes have been investigated for their potential usefulness in absolute dating. Unfortunately, they all occur at rates that lack the universal consistency of radioactive decay. Sometimes human observation can be maintained long enough to measure present rates of change, but it is not at all certain on a priori grounds whether such rates are representative of the past.
This is where radioactive methods frequently supply information that may serve to calibrate nonradioactive processes so that they become useful chronometers. Nonradioactive absolute chronometers may conveniently be classified in terms of the broad areas in which changes occur—namely, geologic and biological processes, which will be treated here. Geologic processes as absolute chronometers Weathering processes During the first third of the 20th century, several presently obsolete weathering chronometers were explored.
Most famous was the attempt to estimate the duration of Pleistocene interglacial intervals through depths of soil development. In the American Midwest, thicknesses of gumbotil and carbonate-leached zones were measured in the glacial deposits tills laid down during each of the four glacial stages.
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This age is obtained from radiometric dating and is assumed by evolutionists to provide a sufficiently long time-frame for Darwinian evolution. And OE Christians theistic evolutionists see no problem with this dating whilst still accepting biblical creation, see Radiometric Dating – A Christian Perspective. This is the crucial point: Some claim Genesis in particular, and the Bible in general looks mythical from this standpoint.
Chapter 2: Atoms and the Periodic Table This content can also be downloaded as an printable PDF, adobe reader is required for full functionality. This text is published under creative commons licensing, for referencing and adaptation, please click here. Atomic Theory with Historical Perspectives Introduction to Elements and the Periodic Table Dmitri [ ].
Sustainable oxygen and ozone help improve safety and decrease costly equipment damage. The wastewater odor is the driving force behind implementing controls for these systems. Corrosion, however, has the greatest potential for environmental, systemic and economic harm. This damage can be in the form of burst pipes and other equipment failures. Failures of this type require equipment repair and replacement, and they have the potential to expose the environment to releases of hazardous waste that may be difficult, if not impossible, to contain or recover.
Corrosion caused by H2S A major contributor to odor and corrosion in industrial systems is hydrogen sulfide H2S and its associated compounds. Some industrial wastewater contains sulfur compounds, which provide the molecular basis for the generation of H2S. H2S arises from the combination of anaerobic conditions and the presence of sulfites and sulfates with the slime layer — colonies of microorganisms present on the inner walls of all collection systems.
Sulfate reducing bacteria SRB will use these compounds in the absence of free oxygen O2 for metabolism. Following its generation, H2S can be released into the atmosphere and find its way to receptors through junctions of the atmosphere and collection system, at which point it is an odor concern.